ghazal


ghazal
   The ghazal is a very common verse form in medieval Arabic, Persian, and Turkish poetry. Scholars have traced the origin of the ghazal to 10th-century Persia, where it developed out of the older form called the QASÍDA that had come into Persia from Arabia. The qasída, often a panegyric in praise of a ruler or nobleman, might run to a length of 100 or more couplets in monorhyme. The ghazal developed out of the tashbib, or opening couplet of the qasÍda, in which the poet would talk more generally about some universal theme like love, life, death, beauty, or nature. The ghazal, which became the most popular form of poetry in Persia, usually did not exceed 12 couplets and, more often, contained about seven. The ghazal was given its definitive form about the 13th century by writers like the Persian SA’DI.
   In its classical form, each couplet (or bayt) of the ghazal is completely self-contained.The sense of one bayt should not run over into the next. In addition the bayt itself should have a turn, or volta, moving from one line to the next, so that the second line gives a new twist to what was introduced in the first line, and each couplet is like a separate poem in itself. The first bayt of a ghazal is called the matla, which sets the mood and tone of the poem. The matla is a rhymed couplet, and the rhyme subsequently appears as the second line of each succeeding couplet, so that the rhyme scheme of the ghazal is aa ba ca da ea etc. In addition the matla usually introduces a refrain, or radif, consisting of a word or short phrase that follows the rhyme in each bayt. Further, each bayt of the ghazal must follow the same meter, or beher. There are technically 19 different meters available for ghazals, but generally these can be categorized as short, medium, or long. Thus the only requirement of the first line of each couplet is that it follow the same beher as the rest of the poem.
   The concluding couplet of the ghazal is usually called the maqta. This is essentially a signature bayt, in which the poet includes his pen name (taknhallus). This bayt tends to be more personal than the rest of the poem, and the poet may consider his own state of mind, or talk about his personal faith or love, or even engage in self-praise. At first, ghazals were strictly love poems—hence the name, which is an Arabic word meaning “talking to women.” As the form developed, it came to include a number of themes, including philosophical, mystical, religious, and social topics, usually with a tone of longing. In post-medieval times, the ghazal was introduced in the West, particularly in Germany, largely through admiration for the poet HAFEZ, and continues to be a very popular form in modern Urdu poetry.

Encyclopedia of medieval literature. 2013.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Ghazal — (persisch ‏غزال‎) oder auch Ghasal ist ein weiblicher Vorname aus dem Persischen. Übersetzt bedeutet der Name Gazelle.[1] Bekannte Namensträger Ghazaleh Alizadeh (1947 1996), iranische Dichterin und Schriftstellerin Salim Ghazal (* 1931),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ghazal — Ghaz al, Ghazel Ghaz el, n. [Ar. ghazal.] A kind of Oriental lyric, and usually erotic, poetry, written in recurring rhymes. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Ghazal — Ghazal, Bahr el, s. Gazellenfluß …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • ghazal — ● ghazal ou ghazel ou rhazal nom masculin (mot arabe) Dans la poésie turque et persane, court poème lyrique (quatre à quinze vers), le nom du poète devant toujours figurer au dernier vers …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Ghazal — In poetry, the ghazal (Arabic/Persian/Urdu: غزل; Hindi: ग़ज़ल; Turkish gazel ) is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain. Each line must share the same meter. The Arabic word ghazal is pronounced roughly like the English word… …   Wikipedia

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  • ghazal — ▪ Islamic literature also spelled  Ghazel, Gasal, or Gazel,         in Islāmic literature, genre of lyric poem, generally short and graceful in form and typically dealing with themes of love. As a genre the ghazal developed in Arabia in the late… …   Universalium

  • Ghazal — Se ha sugerido que este artículo o sección sea fusionado con Gazal (discusión). Una vez que hayas realizado la fusión de artículos, pide la fusión de historiales aquí. El Ghazal (en árabe / persa / Urdu: غزل; Hindi: ग़ज़ल; Punjabi: ਗ਼ਜ਼ਲ, غزل;… …   Wikipedia Español

  • ghazal — noun /ˈɡæzæl,ɣazal/ A poetic form mostly used for love poetry in Turkish, Urdu, Arabic, and Persian. Indeed, this is a realm where colors harmoniously recite magnificent ghazals to each other, where time stops, where the Devil never appears …   Wiktionary


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